ENCYCLOPAEDIA. The Greeks seem to have understood by encyclopaedia (ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία, or ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία) instruction in the whole circle (ἐν κυκλῷ) or complete system of learning—education in arts and sciences. Thus Pliny, in the preface to his Natural History, says that his book treated of all the subjects of the encyclopaedia of the Greeks, “Jam omnia [...]


ALCIBIADES (c. 450-404 B.C.), Athenian general and politician, was born at Athens. He was the son of Cleinias and Deinomache, who belonged to the family of the Alcmaeonidae. He was a near relative of Pericles, who, after the death of Cleinias at the battle of Coroneia (447), became his guardian. Thus early deprived of his [...]


DEMOCRACY(Gr. δημοκρατία, from δῆμος, the people, i.e. the commons, and κράτος, rule), in political science, that form of government in which the people rules itself, either directly, as in the small city-states of Greece, or through representatives. According to Aristotle, democracy is the perverted form of the 2third form of government, which he called πολιτεία, [...]


EMPIRE, a term now used to denote a state of large size and also (as a rule) of composite character, often, but not necessarily, ruled by an emperor - a state which may be a federation, like the German empire, or a unitary state, like the Russian, or even, like the British empire, a loose [...]


WINBURG, a town in the Orange Free State, 90 m. N.E. by rail of Bloemfontein. Pop. (1904) 2762, of whom 1003 were whites. It is built by the banks of a tributary of the Vet affluent of the Vaal, and is a trading centre for a large grain and pastoral district. It is joined to [...]


PROOF-READING, the art or business of correcting for the press the printed "proofs" of articles or books set in type before publication. The special business of a proof-reader, attached to a printing house, is to correct these proofs before they are shown to the author; he is an intermediary between the compositor and the author, [...]


THOUARS, a town of western France, in the department of Deux-Sevres, on the right bank of the Thouet, 24 m. S. by W. of Saumur on the railway to Bordeaux. Pop. (1906), 5321. A massive stronghold built in the first half of the 17th century by the La Tremoille family, and now used as a [...]

Oliver Perry Morton

OLIVER PERRY MORTON (1823-1877), American political leader, "war governor" of Indiana, was born in Salisbury, Wayne county, Indiana, on the 4th of August 1823. After studying for two years (1843-1845) at Miami University, he practised law at Centerville, Indiana, and in 1852 was judge of the sixth judicial circuit of Indiana. In February 1856 he [...]


VITRY-LE-FRANCOIS, a town of north-eastern France, capital of the department of Marne, on the right bank of the Marne, 20 m. S.E. of Chalons, on the railway from Paris to Strassburg. Pop. (1906) 7985. The Marne-Rhine canal, the Haute-Marne canal, and the lateral canal of the Marne unite at Vitry. Its church of Notre-Dame is [...]


RICE (Greek 6p15"zt, Latin oryza, French riz, Italian riso, Spanish arros, derived from the Arabic), a well-known cereal, botanical name Oryza sativa. According to Roxburgh, the great Indian botanist, the cultivated rice with all its numerous varieties has originated from a wild plant, called in India Newaree or Nivara, which is indigenous on the borders [...]

Sir Robert Laurie Morant

"SIR ROBERT LAURIE MORANT (1863-1920), English civil servant, was born at Hampstead April 7 1863. He was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, and on leaving the university was for a few years a schoolmaster. Later he went to Siam as educational adviser, and was entrusted by King Chulalongkorn with the drawing up of [...]


PORTICO (Ital. for "porch," Lat. porticus), a term in architecture for the covered entrance porch to a building, which is carried by columns, and either constitutes the whole front of the building, as in the Greek and Roman temples, or forms an important feature, as the portico of the Pantheon at Rome attached to the [...]


TSAR, or Czar, the title commonly given both abroad and in Russia itself to the sovereign of Russia, whose official style is, however, "Emperor and Autocrat" (Imperator i Samovlastityel). In its origin the word tsar seems to have connoted the same as imperator, being identical with the German Kaiser in its derivation from the [...]